Rijswijk

Rijswijk is located on the south side of The Hague and in the north of Delft. The municipality is part of the Metropolitan Region Haaglanden and Rotterdam-The Hague. The municipality has a total of 48 382 inhabitants (March 31, 2015, source: CBS) and covers an area of ​​14 km².

There is an old center (old rijswijk) with attractive shops and older houses mostly built between 1900 and 1935. In addition, in the 70s a lot of built in Rijswijk where there are mainly flats are built.

There is on this side also a large mall Bogaard which is characterized by the (platsic) cows on the outside.

History:

The 17th century

In the 17th century Hague became the center of power of the Dutch Republic. The Hoornbrug in Rijswijk was often the place where foreign ambassadors were received by a delegation of the States General. Prince Maurice had in Rijswijk a stud farm and a house for his girlfriend Margaretha van Mechelen. After Prince Maurits his country lawyer Oldenbarnevelt treason had let kill, there arose among his opponents, including sons and Reinier Willem van Barneveld a plot to murder him. That should have been done in Rijswijk when Maurits his stables and his beloved would visit. Until this assessment has not come because the plot was leaked.

Frederick Henry, who succeeded Maurice after his death in 1625, bought the estate in 1630 Ter Nieuwburg in Rijswijk, and let it build a large palace. This model soon became a fashion; many powerful or wealthy Dutch built a country seat in Rijswijk and environment.

In 1697 the Treaty of Rijswijk was signed in Huis ter Nieuwburg

The construction of these country houses had an impact on the development of construction in Rijswijk. Also in that time developed the textile industry as an economic factor, but still remained agricultural and livestock by far the largest source of income.

Louis XIV of France strove to extend French territory at all its borders. France was, therefore, often at war with its neighbors. However, the Sun King was unable to subdue the Republic of the Netherlands. When William III formed the British throne a grand coalition against France was. Nevertheless, the war could not be decided. Sweden has tried to bring the parties together and in 1696 a provisional truce was signed. The palace of William III, Huis ter Nieuwburg, was the venue for the peace talks, and eventually was signed the Treaty of Rijswijk in 1697. For six months Rijswijk had been the center of Europe.The 18th century

Rijswijk experienced in the 18th century a steady economic growth. The population grew. Also in this period were still many country estates built; several farms and castles were converted into true pleasure gardens in the French style. However, there appeared in the course of the century a turning point. Some estates flourished and others, such as Huis ter Nieuwburg, Gruysbeeck and Te Blotinghe, fell into disrepair. Among the population in the Netherlands arose dissatisfaction with the power of the regents, and the influence of revolutionary ideas in France had also apply here. Arose in the Netherlands Patriot Movement, which organized itself against the royalists. This went on Rijswijk over. Founded in 1787 by Jacob Vredenburch and Henricus Beukman in Rijswijk on a patriotic society. The Orangist Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp of the outside Sion presented a petition to restore the Prince of Orange to leave his position. Futile attempts of Rijswijk patriots to get their hands on the list of signatories of this petition, meant that there had to be stationed some soldiers in Rijswijk in order to prevent disturbances. All this meant that, as happened in many other places, in August and September 1787 terror patriots against the royalists. This changed in late September, when the royalists took revenge on the Patriots.The 19th centuryThe Roman Catholic church St. Boniface out of use in 1897, demolished in 1898Rijswijk in 1867. The area north of the Laak Molensloot was ceded in favor of the construction of station Hollands Spoor

In 1795 the French army was founded the country and became the Batavian Republic. This introduced, among other things, the separation between church and state. The result was that the Catholics in Rijswijk were given the right to claim the Old Church for the Catholic Faith. Because Catholics but since 1784 again had its own church in Rijswijk, the Protestants were enabled for 4300 guilders to buy the Old Church. After the close of the Ancien Regime was Johan Willem van Vredenburch, son of a prominent Rijswijks patriot, the first mayor of Rijswijk.

Rijswijk remained in the 19th century, a quiet rural village. In the Napoleonic era, the number of inhabitants dropped, but now it began to rise again, and by the end of the century there were 3000 people in Rijswijk. The new executive order, in which the old administrative elite was no place, led estates in decline began to hit.

The territory of Rijswijk has remained largely intact over the centuries. If changes were made, it was at most to shreds ground. Thus acquired a piece of land between the Trekvliet and current Frederiklaan Voorburg in 1834, while 't Sluijsje was ceded. In the 19th century Rijswijk, however, had for the first time a significant part of the territory surrender to The Hague. The station of The Hague, The Hague, which would be connected to the train Amsterdam-Rotterdam had to be built outside the Hague buildings. Reluctantly, but an annual fee of 400 guilders, Rijswijk did therefore from the territory between the Hoefkade and Laak Molensloot. Rijswijk got himself in the course of the century four stations on this railway, namely stop Rijswijk Wateringen (1847-1938), stop Kleiweg (1887-1906), stop little cock (1887-1903) and Station Rijswijk (1965- present). Nevertheless Rijswijk remained in the 19th century, a quiet agricultural town, which remained popular for people seeking peace. King William III was for some time the owner of the country estate Welgelegen, Hendrik Tollens settled in 1846 in Huize Ottoburg opposite the Old Church, and General None spent his old age in Veldzigt. In 1887 the tram connection between The Hague and Delft was opened. Rijswijk was therefore an attractive living environment and began to grow rapidly. Hague grew in the 19th century too soon and in 1896 they wanted to annex a part of Rijswijk again. Rijswijk, however, managed to have the plan was largely abandoned, but the area was between the Laakkade and Broeksloot including four households joined the Hague. Although Rijswijk at the end of the 19th century was still the village agricultural character, by contractors in private initiative has already been considerably extended. The importance of agriculture and livestock continued to decline, the textile industry was lost and commercial and non-commercial services was on the rise. The arrival of the steam engine for Rijswijk also realized that a certain industrialization began. Nevertheless, the character of an agricultural town was still maintained.20th centuryOtto Kriens: View of Church Street in Rijswijk, ca 1900 (Collection Museum Rijswijk)

The early 20th century was marked by a significant growth in population and development. Rijswijk in 1910 had 5,000 inhabitants. Dilapidated estates were sacrificed to housing. The modern era was introduced. Rijswijk in 1907 was the first of a horticultural school for girls. Margaretha Meyboom founded in 1903 the commune Westerbro the current Sir Winston Churchill Avenue. Employment in agriculture increased in the first half of the 20th century continued to decline, but the horticultural made a relatively rapid development. Retailers also developed strongly.

In the twenties, raised a new threat of annexation by The Hague much turmoil. The province of South Holland withdrew the proposal after it appeared that there Rijswijk vast majority fiercely opposed. In 1931 the Hague tried in vain again. Meanwhile Rijswijk built on; Leeuwendaal and Cromvliet were built up, and the population ran late thirties up to 18,000. In 1936 the sport Ypenburg airport was opened, but it was the threat of World War II, it was converted in 1939 to a military airfield.WWII

Airport Ypenburg turned out to be one of the main goals for the Germans. Directly in the attack of Germany on the Netherlands was fought fiercely to the airport. Although the Dutch air force was no match against the German forces, but the defense of the airport was able to inflict much damage under the German planes in the first air attacks. During the first day of war the airfield was still in German hands, but to reinforcements managed to retake the airport. The Germans lost the battle for Ypenburg 2700 men and 186 aircraft, while the Dutch side 71 men were slain, including 10 Rijswijkers.

Rijswijk weathered initially during the occupation, not active against the Germans. When the municipal staff in 1940 was asked to sign the Aryan declaration, there was no resistance. The Rijswijk police assisted in German raids and registration of the 380 Jewish inhabitants were simply executed. After the municipal councils were abolished in 1941, the municipality of Rijswijk the government fell into the hands of Mayor J. Hellberg Hubar, which worked against the Germans whenever possible. That led to that he was fired by the Germans in 1943, then Mayor of The Hague, the NSB H. Westra took over the administration.

For the construction of the Atlantic Wall was demolished several neighborhoods. Rijswijk had 250 homes for evacuees set available. The Allied bombing of the Bezuidenhout led to a stream of evacuees to Rijswijk, but also a mandatory outflow of original Rijswijkers which were no longer economically interesting for Germans. The airport Ypenburg was in the last days of the war used for launching V-1's, and from the Rijswijk Forest V-2s were fired. Failed launches and bombing of launchers costing tens Rijswijkers life. Although Rijswijk before the war had a relatively large following among the NSB, there were during the war, about 130 left. There were several hundred Rijswijkers involved in the resistance, of which more than thirty died in battle. In all, 800 Rijswijkers life during World War II.Postwar growth

Shortly after the war, Hague made another futile attempt to incorporate in Rijswijk. In 1952 Rijswijk had a mayor that would explicitly define the image of the current Rijswijk. A.Th. Bogaardt had been mayor of Batavia and director of social affairs in Batavia, and had an extensive network of connections. The housing shortage, which is also in The Hague after the war was dire, it was for the Hague in the fifties, another reason for wanting to annex the five neighboring municipalities. Bogaardt managed to turn that tide and assumed that rapid growth in Rijswijk the independence of the municipality would secure. During his twenty-year administration has demolished a large part of the old village, and the large-scale construction within and outside the core, the village character, as it still existed until 1950, fully offset. 15 000 new houses were built and the population soared to around 54,000. The name of the mayor is held in memory through the shopping center In de Bogaard. However, under his hand by the construction boom many historical heritage irretrievably lost.Location of the Rijswijk oil field

In 1953 the first volume of recoverable oil drilled in the West Netherlands in a bore in the neighborhood Steenvoorde. This led to the development of the field in the Hoekpolder Rijswijk, which came into production in 1954 and has produced up to 1994 oil. The "Rijswijk Concession" NAM now includes most of South Holland province.

On January 5, 1959 began the construction of the Shell research laboratory in the Plaspoelpolder.

Gradually there were limits to the growth of the city of Rijswijk. The agricultural area was now largely devoted to residential areas, public parks, and industrial and office areas, and further expand the living space should be at the expense of the increasingly available public greenery. Hague pleaded in 1988 for the annexation of the Ypenburg airfield, which was actively used until 1968, but since then had a sleeping character. This was disclaimed by Rijswijk Rijswijk and developed the site from 1997 until new independent residential area.Aboveground pyramid, the entrance to the underground station Rijswijk

In the nineties, the railroad went underground. Thus, the infrastructure of Rijswijk was greatly improved because the railroad was there arose a division in the city in the postwar years. The southwestern part was new with only three crossings associated with the northeastern older section.

21st century

In 2002, by The Hague, after rejection of the city county Haaglanden eventually Ypenburg yet annexed. In 2009 a start was made with the transformation of Zion and little cock, the last agricultural land in Rijswijk, to residential and business area. Despite all the changes, Rijswijk with 30% green public still one of the greenest municipalities of the Netherlands. [2] Estates Zone Rijswijk has a significant share in public parks.

Rijswijk buiten is the latest expansion area which is currently being build.

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